AphanoDB (current version V2.0) is a repository for genomics data (genomics, transcriptomics) regarding the genus Aphanomyces maintained in the French Plant Science Laboratory (LRSV), funded by a ANR Young Research grant and a CNS-Genoscope grant and developed in collaboration with the Bioinformatic Platform of Toulouse.
AphanoDB includes genomics data (genome, transcriptome..) from different Aphanomyces species and genotypes encompassing the biological diversity among the genus. This new version of AphanoDB includes the EST dataset previously generated on A. euteiches (AphanoDBv1, www.polebio.lrsv.ups-tlse.fr/aphano/). AphanoBD will regularly update to include new genomics data on different Aphanomyces species.
Aphanomyces is a genus of Oomycetes (water-molds) which superficially resemble fungi in mycelia growth and mode of nutrition. Oomycetes are place in the kingdom Chromalveolata (phylum Heterokontophyta, the 'stramenopiles') with diatoms, brown and golden algae and are divided in two orders: Peronosporales (i,e Phytophthora, Plasmopara, Peronospora...) and Saprolegniales (Aphanomyces, Saprolegnia). Currently, more than 800 oomycete species are known, causing severe problems not only in agriculture but also in natural ecosystems (both terrestrial and marine).
The genus Aphanomyces, a member of the Saprolegniales, occupies a unique position within the oomycetes. It comprises highly specialized parasitic species, some of which are among the most severe pathogens in both plants and animals. Around 40 species of Aphanomyces have been described which occur in very different ecological niches from plant* and animal** parasites with a narrow host range to saprophitic*** species growing on decaying animal and debris. Below are listed some Aphanomyces species and their mains characteristics.
- *A. euteiches has spread within only a few years to many areas around the world and is now considered as the most destructive agent on pea, notably in Europe. This root pathogen can interact with Fabaceae including alfalfa and the legume model Medicago truncatula.
- *A. cochlioides infects the root of sugar beet, spinach, and other species of Chenopodiaceae and Amaranthaceae. Its host range is limited but it is well-recognized worldwide, especially in beet production areas in North America, Europe, and Chile.
- *A. cladogamus is a root pathogen with a wider host range (Chenopodiaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Solanaceae families)
- **A. astaci is the causative agent of crayfish plague. Virulent genotypes of A. astaci were accidentally introduced in Europe, giving rise to disease outbreaks among its crustacean host, the freshwater crayfish. It is considered as one of the 100 world’s worst invasive species.
- **A. invadans (currently sequenced by the Broad Institute, USA), is causing devastating losses (epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS)) to cultured fish in freshwater ponds throughout the tropics. It affected wild and farmed fish in Asia and Indo-Pacific regions and has been recently involved in a killer disease decimating fish stocks in the Zambezi River Valley.
- ***A. stellatus and A. helicoides are primarily saprotrophic but in some instances have been shown to act as opportunistic pathogens.